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Table 3 Potential community (private and external) costs of biophilic urbanism initiatives

From: Evaluating net community benefits of integrating nature within cities

Impact Type



▪ Biophilic urbanism changes may promote human-wildlife conflict; introduce weeds and pest species; lead to insect infestation; or lower groundwater

▪ (leading to social & economic costs)


▪ Speed eco-gentrification and social dislocation; lead to health impacts such as allergies (e.g. asthma), disease, insect bites

▪ Change the “character” of an area.

▪ Increase risk and fear of crime and animal attacks, general ‘biophobia’

▪ Some cultural groups may not have the same view of green space and prefer alternative land and resource use.

▪ Neighbourhood and broader scale elements may reduce accessibility, separate social groups and stifle interaction (including by urban sprawl access issues) [66].


▪ Increase property values and reduce affordability.

▪ Increase heating expenses, water, roots damage infrastructure, increase maintenance costs, insurance costs.

▪ Reduced visibility (increasing accident risk and related problems) and increased risk and incidence of injury related to vegetation.