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Table 2 The community benefits and costs of urban greening (with a focus upon biophilic urbanism elements)

From: Evaluating net community benefits of integrating nature within cities

Impacts

(Benefits ‘+’ and Costs ‘-‘ as indicated)

Building Scale Elements

Neighbourhood Scale Elements

City Scale Elements

1.1

1.2

1.3

2.1

2.2

2.3

3.1

3.2

3.3

Indoor & atrium vegetation

Green Roofs

Green Walls (Internal & External)

Green verges, green streets, greenways, street trees, walk-ways

Green islands, pocket parks, vacant land

Other outdoor lot level lawns, gardens, trees

Green corridors, buffer zones; public areas

Urban gardens & farming

Green Waterways & water sensitive design

ECONOMIC

 ▪ Tourism revenues

+

 

++

++

++

+

++

+

++

 ▪ Water availability, security, groundwater

 

+

 

+

+

++

+

++

++

 ▪ Soil and other natural resource demands

   

+

+

++

+

++

++

 ▪ Recreational/discretionary time availability

   

+

++

++

+

++

+

 ▪ Property values, retail, other related revenue

+

 

+

+

 

++

++

++

+

 ▪ Worker productivity and returns

++

+

+

      

 ▪ Resources for health care

++

+

 

+

+

+

 

+

 

 ▪ Energy demands, productivity security

+

+

+

+

+

+

 

+

+

 ▪ Food production and security

     

+

+

++

+

 ▪ Water demands, productivity,

  

+

+

+

+

+

+

 ▪ Damage costs to infrastructure

 

+

+

+

+

 

+

 

++

 ▪ Pests and disease

+

 

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

ECOSPHERE HEALTH

 ▪ Broad-scale ecosystem vitality

 

+

+

++

++

+

++

+

++

 ▪ Biological and genetic diversity

 

+

+

++

++

+

++

+

++

 ▪ Broad-scale pollution management functions

 

+

+

++

++

+

++

+

++

 ▪ Pollination, growth, health of plant species

+

+

+

+

++

+

++

+

++

INDIVIDUAL PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH (AESTHETIC, SPIRITUAL, ECO-PSYCHOLOGICAL)

 ▪ Pollution-related mitigation

++

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

 ▪ Wellbeing from immersion in nature

++

+

+

++

+

++

+

++

+

 ▪ Other aesthetic, spiritual, inspirational value

++

+

+

++

+

++

++

++

+

 ▪ Mood and well-being

+

 

+

++

+

++

+

++

+

 ▪ Exercise-related effects

   

+

+

++

++

++

+

 ▪ Ill-health recovery time

+

  

+

+

+

 

+

+

URBAN QUALITY OF LIFE, ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

 ▪ Microclimate changes

+

++

++

++

+

++

+

+

+

 ▪ Noise pollution abatement

+

+

+

++

+

++

+

+

 

 ▪ Waste/ pollution detox, filtering, composting

++

+

+

+

+

++

++

++

++

 ▪ Other effects on urban environments

+

+

+

+

++

++

+

++

+

 ▪ Enhanced soils, urban ecosystem vitality

   

+

+

++

++

++

++

 ▪ Water supply quantity, security, quality

 

+

 

+

+

++

+

++

++

 ▪ Health, safety, resource savings and welfare

   

+

+

+

+

+

++

URBAN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CAPITAL

 ▪ Nature-based cultural identification

 

+

+

++

++

++

++

++

++

 ▪ Sociocultural capital, knowledge economies

+

+

+

+

++

++

++

++

++

 ▪ Social capital-building, interaction, trust

   

+

++

+

+

++

+

 ▪ Spiritual, cultural, historical and heritage

   

+

+

+

++

+

+

 ▪ Ornamental, culturally significant resources

+

+

+

+

+

+

++

+

+

URBAN VITALITY AND EXPERIENCE

 ▪ Urban vitality, environment, experience

++

+

+

++

++

+

++

+

++

 ▪ Associated economic quality of life benefits

++

+

+

++

++

+

++

+

++

 ▪ Efficiency, speed, access - transport networks

   

+

+

+

++

+

+

 ▪ Traffic calming, incidences

   

+

+

+

++

+

+